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Muscle Fatigue

In this experiment, students will learn about the skeletal muscular system and correlate its functions to the respiratory system. In each cell in the body there is a powerhouse which supplies the body with the energy required to do its functions. This powerhouse is called the mitochondria. An important process happens inside the mitochondria called cellular respiration, where nutrients are broken down in the presence of oxygen giving carbon dioxide, water and energy. Because oxygen is part of this process, this cellular respiration is definrubegoldbergthumbed as aerobic respiration. However, if the oxygen supply is not sufficient eventually muscle fatigue will occur.

Muscle Fatigue – Teacher Notes (PDF)

Muscle Fatigue – Student Notes (PDF)

Muscle Fatigue – Curriculum Links (PDF)

 

Rube Goldberg Machine

A ‘Rube Goldberg’ machine is a device designed to do something simple in an over-complicated and over-engineered way. It is normally a chain of smaller machines which link together to form one huge device. The expression is named after American cartoonist and engineer Rube Goldberg (1883–1970). This experiment is a fun and effective way to teach students about different types of mechanical energy. It provides a hands on experience of energy transfer and transformation, varying types of energy and conservation rubegoldbergthumbof energy. Students will apply their knowledge in designing their own Goldberg machine.

Rube Goldberg – Teacher Notes (PDF)

Rube Goldberg – Student Notes (PDF)

Rube Goldberg – Curriculum Links (PDF)

 

Best Bubbles

It is hard to think of anything more mesmerising than bubbles! These free-floating translucent orbs which display rainbow colours are not only a lot of fun, but they exhibit some pretty interesting science. This investigation is an exploration into what makes a good bubble mixture. It is at an open-inquiry level and therefore suitable for developing science inquiry skills for all grade levels. As students are engaged within a process of discovery, they develop a procedure and record data in their own way. These data are used to determinerubegoldbergthumb the ‘best’ solution. They also must evaluate the accuracy of their experiments.

Best Bubbles – Teacher Notes (PDF)

Best Bubbles – Student Notes (PDF)

Best Bubbles – Syllabus (PDF)

Food Storage

The experiment is suitable for students from years 7 to 10. It can be modified to suit students at different achievement levels. In this experiment, students will study the reaction of different metals with hydrochloric acid in an attempt to find the best metal to be used in food cans. The reason for doing this experiment is because  food and juice contain different types of acids which would eventually chemically react with the material of the can and form other unwanted chemical products. In their experiment, students will finrubegoldbergthumbd the least reactive metal and assign it as the best suitable material to be used as a food or juice can.

Food Storage – Teacher Notes (PDF)

Food Storage – Student Notes (PDF)

Food Storage – Curriculum Links (PDF)

Colour of Stars

Throughout the universe, stars of many different sizes and colours exist. Our sun is a yellow colour but some stars can even be blue! The colour of a star gives astrophysicists important information about that star. What can a racing car tell us about the colour of a star? How can a lightbulb help us work out what that colour means? Find out in this rubegoldbergthumb
investigation.

Colour of Stars -Teachers Notes (PDF)

Colour of Stars – Student Notes (PDF)

Colour of Stars – Curriculum Links (PDF)

 

Exploring Electromagnets

In this experiment, students will learn about electromagnets, how they are constructed and some of the factors affecting the strength of an electromagnet. Students are required to learn about electromagnets in great detail in year 12. However, students from years 7 to 10 are required to learn about energy transformation and transfer; this activity will shed light on how energy can be transformed from electrical energy to magnetic and kinetic energy. This is also a flexible and versatile experiment, and the teacher may exploringeletromagnetsthumb.pngadjust the experiment to suit their students’ learning abilities.

Electromagnets – Teacher Notes (PDF)

Electromagnets – Student Notes (PDF)

Electromagnets – Curriculum Links (PDF)

 

Composite Materials

In this experiment students are led to consider the material that an object is made of (in this case a polystyrene plank) and what gives it strength (or not). This is done through a quick and easy loading experiment, which gets the students to test the limits of their set-up to the moment of destruction. The students are then challenged to come up with ways to improve the strength by adding tape. A little extra rivalry can be gently encouraged between groups in the class, perhaps with a prize for the best performing construction! This investigation can be used to demonstrate forces on and within objects. It also covers the broader topic of materials science, covering aspects of scientists working with engineers, and how sthumb.jpgcience can contribute to a better society.

Composite Materials -Teacher Notes (PDF)

Composite Materials – Student Notes (PDF)

Composite Materials – Curriculum Link (PDF)

 

Bath Bombs

Turn the laboratory into a small factory and allow your students to engage in a hands-on activity to make their own bath bombs. This is a fun activity and students will learn about a popular type of chemical reaction while gaining the skill of making this popular gift. In this practical, students will experience being artists, designers, perfumers, manufacturers, quality controllers and scientists.bathbombthumb

Bath Bombs – Teacher Notes (PDF)

Bath Bombs – Student Notes (PDF)

Bath Bombs – Curriculum Links (PDF)

 

Evaporation

Evaporation is a physical change where a substance changes from the liquid state to the gaseous state. Evaporation of water plays a crucial role in the water cycle which is responsible for maintaining life on planet Earth. Many disciplines depend on the process of evaporation, one important example is in the field of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, where alcohol is used as a solvent. The fast rate of evaporation of alcohol allows it to evaporate, leaving only the active ingredients in action over the skin. Another important application of the process of evaporation is fractional distillation where different materials can be separated on the basis of their boiling point. Some industries,such as the salt industry, depend on the process of evaporation where water evaporates leaving salt behind. It is important to make the students aware of why they are studying a certain topic, relating the topic to their daily life makes it more engaging and interesting. In this experiment, thumbstudents will conduct an experiment to compare between the evaporation rate of water and alcohol.

Evaporation – Student notes (PDF)

Evaporation -Curriculum Links (PDF)

Evaporation – Teacher Notes (PDF)

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