Electricity and Magnetism. R.C. Cross, Longman, Hawthorn (1976)

An introduction to Alfven waves, R. C. Cross, Adam Hilger, (1988)

The Physics and Technology of Tennis, H. Brody, R. Cross and C. Lindsey, Racquet Tech Publishing, (2002).

R. Cross, Materials and Tennis Strings, Chapter 8 in Materials in sports equipment, Ed M. Jenkins, Woodhead, Cambridge, (2003).

R. Cross and S. Miller, Equipment and advanced performance, in Biomechanics of Advanced Tennis Coaching, Elliott, Crespo and Reid (Eds), ITF Publishing (2003).

R. Cross and C. Lindsey, Technical Tennis, Racquet Tech Publishing, Vista, CA, USA (2005).

R. Cross, Physics of Baseball and Softball, Springer NY (2011).


R. Cross, Fatal falls from a height: two case studies, J Forensic Sciences, 51, 93-99 (2006).

R. Cross, Forensic Physics 101: Falls from a height, Am. J. Phys. 76, 833-837 (2008).

R. Cross, Evidence for murder: how physics convicted a killer, UNSW Press (2009).

R. Cross, Misinterpretation of expert evidence in Wood v R, Australian J Forensic Sciences 46(4), 368-382 (2014) DOI 10.1080/00450618.2013.879207


COPYRIGHT: The following articles may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and, in the case of Am. J. Phys. and The Physics Teacher articles,  the American Association of Physics Teachers.

The AJP Home page is at 

Sports Engineering is located at 

Sports Technology is located at

R.C. Cross, The dead spot of a tennis racquet,  Am J Phys, 65, 754-764, (1997).

R.C. Cross, The trajectory of a ball in lawn bowls, Am. J. Phys, 66, 735-738, (1998)

R.C. Cross, The sweet spot of a baseball bat, Am. J. Phys. 66, 772-779 (1998)

R.C. Cross, The sweet spots of a tennis racquet , Sports Engineering, 1, 63-78 (1998).

R.C. Cross, The bounce of a ball, Am. J. Phys. 67, 222-227 (1999).

R.C. Cross, Standing, walking, running and jumping on a force plate, Am. J. Phys. 67, 304-309 (1999)

R.C. Cross, Dynamic properties of tennis balls, Sports Engineering 2, 23-33 (1999).

R.C. Cross, Impact of a ball with a bat or racket, Am. J. Phys. 67, 692-702 August (1999).

R. Cross, Effects of friction between the ball and strings in tennis, Sports Engineering, Vol 3 Number 2, p85-97 (2000).

R. Cross, Flexible beam analysis of the effects of string tension and frame stiffness on racket performance, Sports Engineering, Vol 3 Number 2, p111-122 (2000).

R.C. Cross, The coefficient of restitution for collisions of happy balls, unhappy balls and tennis balls, Am. J. Phys. 68, 1025-1031 (2000).

R. Cross, C. Lindsey and D. Andruczyk, Laboratory testing of tennis strings, Sports Engineering, 3, 219-230 (2000).

R. Cross, Response to ``Comment on the sweet spot of a baseball bat", American Journal of Physics, 69, 231-232 (2001).

R. Cross, Customising a tennis racket by adding weights, Sports Engineering, 4, 1-14 (2001).

R. Cross, Why bows get stiffer and racquets get softer when the strings are added, Am. J. Phys, 69, 907-910 (2001).

R. Cross, The dual function of sand on a clay tennis court, The Physics Teacher, 39, 330-331 (2001).

R. Cross, Measurements of the horizontal coefficient of restitution for a superball and a tennis ball, Am. J. Phys. 70, 482-489 (2002).

R. Cross and R. Bower, Measurements of string tension in a tennis racquet, Sports Engineering, 4, 165-175 (2001).

R. Cross, Grip-slip behaviour of a bouncing ball, Am. J. Phys. 70,1093-1102 (2002).

R. Bower and R. Cross, Player sensitivity to changes in string tension in a tennis racquet, Jnl of Science and Medicine in Sport, 6, 120-131 (2003).

R. Cross, Measurements of the horizontal and vertical speeds of tennis courts, Sports Engineering,6, 95-111 (2003).

R. Cross, Oblique impact of a tennis ball on the strings of a tennis racquet, Sports Engineering, 6, 235-254 (2003).

R. Cross, The physics of overarm throwing, Am J. Phys. 72, 305-312, (2004).

R. Cross, Center of percussion of hand-held implements, Am J. Phys. 72, 622-630 (2004).

R. Cross, Physics of ankle injuries, Medicine and Science in Tennis, 9, 7 (2004).

R. Bower and R. Cross, String tension effects on tennis ball rebound speed and accuracy during playing conditions, Journal of Sports Sciences, 23, 765-771 (2005).

R. Cross, A double pendulum swing experiment: In search of a better bat, Am. J. Phys. 73, 330-339 (2005).

R. Cross, Increase in friction force with sliding speed, Am. J. Phys, 73, 812-816 (2005).

R. Cross, Bounce of a spinning ball near normal incidence, Am. J. Phys, 73, 914-920 (2005).

R. Cross and R. Bower, Effects of swing-weight on swing speed and racket power, Journal of Sports Sciences 24, 23-30 (2006).

R. Cross and A. Nathan, Scattering of a baseball by a bat, Am. J. Phys, 74, 896-904 (2006).

R. Cross and A. Nathan, Experimental study of the gear effect in ball collisions, Am. J. Phys. 75, 658-664 (2007).

R. Cross, Cue and ball deflection (or “squirt”) in billiards, Am. J. Phys. 76, 205-212 (2008).

R. Cross, Tennis physics, anyone? Physics Today, 61(9) 84-85 (2008).

R. Bower and R. Cross, Elite tennis player sensitivity to changes in string tension and the effect on resulting ball dynamics, Sports Engineering, (2008).

R. Cross, Mechanics of swinging a bat, Am. J. Phys. 77, 36-43 (2009).

R. Cross and A. Nathan, Performance vs moment of inertia of sporting implements, Sports Technology, 2, 7-15 (2009).

R. Cross and G. Pollard, Grand Slam men’s singles tennis 1991-2009, ITF Coaching and Sports Science Review, 16 (Issue 49), 8-10 (2009). Can download at

R. Cross, Impact of a ball on a surface with tangential compliance, Am. J. Phys. 78, 716-720 (2010).

R. Cross, Enhancing the bounce of a ball, The Physics Teacher, 48, 450-452 (2010).

R. Cross, Impact forces and torques transmitted to the hand by tennis racquets, Sports Technology, 3(2), 102-111 (2010).

R. Cross, Measurement of the speed and bounce of tennis courts, Sports Technology, 3(2), 112-120 (2010).

R. Cross, Bounce of an oval shaped football, Sports Technology, 3(3), 168-180 (2010).

R. Cross, The polar moment of inertia of striking implements, Sports Technology, 3(3), 215-219 (2010).

R. Cross and G. Pollard, Grand Slam men’s singles tennis 1995-2009. Part 2: Points, games and sets, ITF Coaching and Sports Science Review, 19 (Issue 53), 3-6 (April 2011).  Can download at

R. Cross, A double pendulum model of tennis strokes, Am. J. Phys. 79, 470-476 (2011). See also for videos of double pendulum action.

R. Cross, Launch of a vehicle from a ramp, The Physics Teacher, 49, 410-411 (2011).

R. Cross, The kick serve in tennis, Sports Technology, 4, 19-28 (2011).

R. Cross, Rolling motion of a ball spinning about a near-vertical axis, The Physics Teacher, 50, 25-27 (2012).

R. Cross, Measuring the effects of lift and drag on projectile motion, The Physics Teacher, 50, 80-82 (2012).

R. Cross, Aerodynamics in the classroom and at the ball park, Am. J. Phys. 80, 289-297 (2012). See and also the baseball movies in the sports physics movie clips.

R. Cross, Elastic properties of plasticine, silly putty and tennis strings, The Physics Teacher, 50, 527- 529 (2012).

R. Cross, Impact of sports balls with striking implements, Sports Engineering 17, 3-22 (2014).

R. Cross and C. Lindsey, Measurements of drag and lift on tennis balls in flight, Sports Engineering 17, 89-96 (2014).

R. Cross, Impact behavior of hollow balls, Am. J. Phys. 82(3), 189-195 (2014).

R. Cross, Men’s tennis vs Women’s tennis, ITF Coaching and Sport Science Review, Issue 62, pp3-5, April 2014 (download at

R. Cross, Measuring the drag force on a falling ball, The Physics Teacher, 52, 169-170 (2014).

R. Cross, Comment on “An accurate determination of the acceleration of gravity for lecture hall demonstration”, Am. J. Phys. 82(8), 803-804 (2014).

R. Cross, The footprint of a tennis ball, Sports Engineering, 17, 239-247 (2014).

R. Cross, Oblique bounce of a rubber ball, Experimental Mechanics, 54, 1523-1536 (2014).

R. Cross, Impact behavior of a superball, Am. J. Phys. in press



R.C. Cross, Interpreting positive Hall voltages in terms of electron rather than hole motion. Am. J. Phys. 46, 771-2 (1978).

E. Kunhhardt and R.C. Cross, Demonstration of dispersive effects. Am. J. Phys. 47, 429-30 (1979).

R.C. Cross and G.A. Collins, Compensated RC integrators. Am. J. Phys. 49, 479-80 (1981).

R.C. Cross, Demonstration of wave propagation in a periodic structure. Am. J. Phys. 53, 563-7 (1985).

R.C. Cross, Current transformers. Am. J. Phys. 54, 1110-13 (1986).

R.C. Cross, A simple measurement of string motion, Am. J. Phys. 56, 1047-8 (1988).

R.C. Cross, Magnetic lines of force and rubber bands, Am. J. Phys. 57, 722-5 (1989).

R.C. Cross, Role of the centrifugal force in vehicle roll, Am. J. Phys. 67, 447-8 (1999).

R.C. Cross, Tension loss along a string, Am. J. Phys. 68, 1152-1153 (2000).

R. Cross, Fall and bounce of pencils and other elongated objects, Am. J. Phys, 74, 26-30 (2006).

R. Cross, Aerodynamics of a party balloon, The Physics Teacher, 45, 334-336 (2007).

R. Cross, Vertical bounce of two vertically aligned balls, Am. J. Phys. 75, 1009-1016 (2007).

R. Cross, Differences between bouncing balls, springs and rods, Am. J. Phys. 76, 908-915 (2008).

R. Cross, Edme Mariotte and Newton’s Cradle, The Physics Teacher, 50 206-207 (2012).

R. Cross, Elastic and viscous properties of silly putty, Am. J. Phys. 80, 870-875 (2012).

R. Cross and M. Wheatland, Modeling a falling slinky, Am. J. Phys. 80, 1051- 1060 (2012).

R. Cross, Spinning eggs and ballerinas, Physics Education 48(1), 51-56 (2013).

R. Cross, Spherical Tippe tops, The Physics Teacher 51(3), 144-145 (2013).

R. Cross, The rise and fall of spinning tops, Am. J. Phys. 81(4), 280-289 (2013).

R. Cross, Rocking and rolling rattlebacks, The Physics Teacher 51(9), 544-545 (2013).

R. Cross, Laithwaite’s heavy spinning disk demonstration, The Physics Teacher 52(9), 349-350 (2014).

R. Cross, Why chalk breaks into three pieces when dropped, The Physics Teacher, in press



R. Cross, Physics of the tennis kick serve 


R. Cross and C. Lindsey,  Which strings generate the most spin? 


R. Cross, The double pendulum in tennis



Racquet Tech Articles (

(ALL articles are COPYRIGHT)

C. Lindsey and R. Cross, String testing,  (3.3 Mb pdf) Racquet Tech, 25, 4-20, June 2000.

R. Cross and C. Lindsey, String test results: what do they mean?  Racquet Tech, 25, 4-13, July 2000.

R. Cross, Do strings affect power? Racquet Tech, 10-16, Sept 2000.

R. Cross, String gauges: Are thin strings softer or stiffer? Racquet Tech, 26, 4-10, Feb 2001

R. Cross, Measuring string tension: Part 1, Racquet Tech, 26, 4-8, June 2001

R. Cross, Measuring string tension: Part 2, Racquet Tech, 26, 14-18, July 2001

R. Cross, Stretch Tests on Strings, Racquet Tech, 26, 12-19, Sept 2001.

C. Lindsey and R. Cross, Swingweight calculator, Racquet Tech, 26, 6-10, Dec 2001.

R. Cross and C. Lindsey, How stiff is a stiff racquet? Racquet Tech, 26, 13-21, Dec 2001.

R. Cross and C. Lindsey, Frame vibrations, Racquet Tech, 26, 14-17, Dec 2001.

R. Cross, Dwell time, Racquet Tech, 28, 10-12, May 2003.

R. Cross, Getting a grip on the ball, Racquet Tech, 28, 4-9, Oct 2003.


Racquet Sports Industry Articles (

(ALL articles are COPYRIGHT)

R. Cross, Racquet power and the ideal racquet weight, Racquet Sports Industry, 1, 53-57, Feb 2004

R. Cross, The world's most efficient tennis racquet.. sort of, Racquet Sports Industry, October 2004, p36-37.

R. Cross, Racquet Acrobatics, Racquet Sports Industry, April 2005, p46-47.

R. Cross, The inch that changed tennis forever, Racquet Sports Industry, January 2006, p40-41.

R. Cross, Raw racquet power, Racquet Sports Industry, February 2006, p16-17.

R. Cross, Racquet Handle weighting and maneuverability, Racquet Sports Industry, April 2006, p36-37.

R. Cross, Wrist snap in the serve, Racquet Sports Industry, July 2006, p40-42.

R. Cross, Spin off the court and strings, Racquet Sports Industry, January 2007, p40.

R. Cross and C. Lindsey, Ball testing, Racquet Sports Industry, January 2007, p20-25.

(see also C. Lindsey, How a tennis ball is made, p.26-29)

R. Cross, Technology smokescreen, Racquet Sports Industry, September 2009.



R. Cross, Why you miss putts, Australian Golf Digest, 46-50 Dec 2006.

H. Brody and R. Cross, Proposals to slow the serve in tennis, Tennis Science and Technology, (Eds S.J. Haake and A. Coe), Blackwell Science, ISBN 0-632-05638X, Published as the proceedings of the 1st International Congress on Tennis Science and Technology, London, August 2000, pp. 261-268.